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Hylian Verbs

wirtEn hilanan

Wirtën Hilanan

A very convenient aspect of the Hylian language is that all verbs follow a regular conjugation pattern. First off, you must know what a conjugated verb is. A conjugated verb is one that takes a subject; it is doing something. For example: I eat food. In this sentence, the verb eat is conjugated, it takes the subject I. Any unconjugated verb is called an infinitive. In English, the infinitive usually looks like to be or to eat, with the preposition to indicating that it is infinitive. Look at this example: Verb: to be  Conjugations: I am, you are, he/she/it is, we are, you are, they are. In English, to be is irregular because it does not follow the normal pattern of adding an -s to the third person singular. In Hylian, all verbs are regular. That means that they all follow the same conjugation pattern. Each tense has a unique ending that is only used for that verb, and not for any other type of word. Here are the endings for Hylian verbs, using ta.irag, to be, as an example.
Infinitive ending. To be.
Present tense. (you) are.
Past tense. (you) were.
Future tense. (you) will be.
Present perfect tense. (you) have been.
Past perfect tense. (you) had been.
Future perfect tense. (you) will have been.
Imperative mood, a command. (you) be

These endings are unique only to the verbs. That means that a word that ends in -as can only be a verb that is in the present tense. This makes understanding a word's part of speech very easy. In English it can be very difficult to tell what a word means if it is out of context. Take turn for example. It can be a verb: I turn; or it can be a noun: a left turn. As in English, a noun must have an explicit subject or an understood one. For example: I run. The subject of that sentence is I. The subject was explicitly stated. Here is an example of an understood subject: run. In that sentence, the subject you was understood because it was a command. Hylian works the same way. For each tense, the verb ending stays the same regardless of who is doing the action.

bagu t@ras
bagu ta.iras
I am
t@u t@ras
ta..iu ta..iras
You (singular) are
Eru t@ras
ëru ta.iras
He is
nosu t@ras
nosu ta.iras
We are
vosu t@ras
vosu ta.iras
You (plural) are
iEru t@ras
iëru ta.iras
They are

Notice that the -as ending didn't change even when the subject changed. This rule stays the same for all verbs in all tenses. In certain cases, a subject is not needed. In commands, or in sentences with more than one verb and the subject doesn't change, the subject need only be stated once. Take these examples:

bagu koemes Ek goeares ab taz koeme.
Bagu koemes ëk goeares az koeme.
I ate and (I) liked the food.

lintans ab jhatag hilane.
Lintans ab jhatag hilane.
(You) Learn (how) to speak Hylian.

The most important aspect of a verb is its tense. The tense tells when the action happened. I reviewed the tenses above, but I will now explain them in further detail.

Verb Tenses
Present tense - Krone Akantroshe. This describes an action that is happening now. When people talk, most of what they say is in the present tense. I am happy ~ Bagu ta.iras fëlzana. Please note that this is the pure form of the verb, the progressive, I am eating, will be explained later. 
Past tense - Krone Depotroshe. This describes an action that happened sometime in the past; it may or may not have been completed. I ate the food ~ Bagu koemes az koeme.
Future tense - Krone Baakantroshe. This describes an action that will take place sometime in the future. Please note that English uses the helping verb will to express the future tense, Hylian does not use a helping verb; it simply changes the ending of the infinitive. I will speak to her ~ Bagu jhatos ak sëru.
Present perfect tense - Krone Akantroshe da.ia Kimare. This describes an action that has been completed in the past. In English, the present tense of the verb have is used as a helping verb along with the past participle, Hylian does not use helping verbs to form any of the perfect tenses, and the past participle does not exist in Hylian. I have seen it ~ Bagu miarant ab ru. He has seen it ~ Ëru miarant ab ru.
Past perfect tense - Krone Depotroshe da.ia Kimare. This describes an action that was completed in the past, and completed before another said action. In English, it is usually formed with the helping verb had. I had already eaten the food before she arrived ~ Bagu yaz koemënt az koeme depoto sëru yovtes.
Future perfect tense - Krone Baakantroshe da.ia Kimare. This describes an action that will be completed in the future before another future action. Link will arrive in the morning and I will have finished my work ~ Link yovtos ënt taz minaze ëk bagu torimont ab bagu'sa tïnske.
Imperative mood - Sënte Jushipe. Strictly speaking, this is not a tense, it is a mood. The verb itself does not have a time of ocurrance, but it is understood to take place in the present. The imperative mood is used to give a command to someone. In English, the subject you is understood, and is not usually stated. In Hylian, the subject (whom you are giving the command to) does not need to be stated if it can be determined by context, i.e. you're talking directly to that person. However, the subject can be stated for emphasis or clarification. (You) Be quiet ~ (Ta.iu) Ta.irans sikwala. You (guys, plural) speak quietly ~ Vosu jhatans sikwalok.
Special Note: The imperative mood is also used to give a "nosu" command. This would be equivalent to the English "Let's (do something)". For example: Let's leave ~ Nosu sïlrans. Notice that in Hylian, the subject nosu is usually stated. However, in certain contexts it can be omitted, i.e. talking directly with each other and there is no ambiguity.


Another important concept of verbs is their objects, either direct or indirect object. A direct object is what the verb affects directly, it usually answers the question who? or what? For example:
  • I read the book ~ Bagu lërdes az lërde. The word book is the direct object of the verb read. It answers the question what?
An indirect object is the person or object that the action was performed for, it answers the questions to whom?, for whom?, to what?, or for what? In an English sentence, the indirect object usually comes before the direct object.
  • I gave him the book. Book is the direct object, and him is the indirect object.
  • I gave the book to him. This has the exact same meaning as the above sentence, but notice that the indirect object came after the direct object. The indirect object is indicated by the preposition to.
Verbs that take direct objects are called transitive verbs, verbs that do not take direct objects are intransitive verbs. A transitive verb can have a direct object or both a direct and an indirect object. An intransitive has either an indirect object or no object at all. Sometimes it can be confusing in sentences with the word to, because prepositional or adverbial phrases that start with to may not be objects at all.
  • They walked to the house. In this sentence, to the house is not an indirect object because it does not tell to/for whom? or to/for what? The phrase to the house is an adverbial phrase that modifies the verb walk. It tells where they walked. An adverb answers the questions where?, when?, how?, or to what extent? In this sentence, it answers the question where. Where did they walk? They walked to the house.
  • She spoke. In this sentence, the verb spoke is intransitive because it has no direct object.

  • She spoke to him. In this sentence, the verb spoke is also intransitive because it has no direct object. But please note that it does have an indirect object, to him. This is perfectly acceptable.She spoke Hylian. In this sentence, the verb spoke is transitive because it has the direct object Hylian. The object tells what she spoke.She spoke Hylian to him. In this sentence, the verb spoke is transitive bcause it has the direct object Hylian. But also note that it has the indirect object him. Hylian tells what she spoke, him tells to whom she spoke.
Here is an overview of objects in the Hylian language:

In a Hylian sentence, the order is usually subject, verb, direct object, and indirect object.
bagu diares ab taz lerde ank Eru.
Bagu diares az lërde ank ëru.
I gave the book to him.

Hylian sentences use verbal particles to indicate that something is a direct or indirect object.

Direct object particle. This word does not have a literal translation into English. It is used in a sentence to indicate that the following word or phrase is the direct object of the verb. 
Indirect object particle. This word can be literally translated as "to" or "for." It indicates that the following word or phrase is the indirect object of the verb.

Verbal Adjuncts

There are a few special words in Hylian called verbal adjuncts. They are words that are used in conjunction with a verb to change its meaning. One thing you may notice about Hylian is that there is no present or past participle. For example, in English, the present participle of do is doing and the past participle is done. Not having participles can make Hylian confusing to new speakers. However, the verbal adjuncts give the verb a special meaning that correspond to certain tenses in English. An adjunct is always placed directly in front of a conjugated verb. Here are some rules for using adjuncts:

1. An adjunct always comes directly before a conjugated verb. If a subject is stated, the adjunct comes between the subject and verb. You can never seperate the adjunct from the verb, the adjunct must always come first.

2. Sometimes a verb can have more than one adjunct modifying it. In this case, both adjuncts must be placed together, and come directly before the verb.

3. Pay close attention to the specific rules for each adjunct. Some adjuncts can be used with all tenses, and some are used with only one verb tense. Using the incorrect verb tense can drastically change the meaning of the sentence.

Progressive Adjunct - Jhunte Ra.uka
This word gives the verb a progressive meaning. In English, the progressive is formed by combining a form of to be with the present participle of a verb. For example: I am reading, I was reading, I will be reading, I have been reading, I had been reading, and I will have been reading. In Hylian, simply add the adjunct shi directly before the verb to create a progressive meaning. The tense of the Hylian verb is the same as the tense of to be in English.
bagu Si lErdas.
Bagu shi lërdas.
I am reading.
bagu Si lErdes.
Bagu shi lërdes.
I was reading.
bagu Si lErdos.
Bagu shi lërdos.
I will be reading.
bagu Si lErdant.
Bagu shi lërdant.
I have been reading.
bagu Si lErdEnt.
Bagu shi lërdënt.
I had been reading.
bagu Si lErdont.
Bagu shi lërdont.
I will have been reading.

Imperfect Adjunct - Jhunte Vokimara
This word gives the verb an imperfect meaning. It is roughly equivalent to saying used to in English. It denotes a sense of incompletion or continuity with regard to the past. For all practical purposes, it is used in the same way as used to. Please note that this adjunct is only used with the past tense of the verb.
bagu So lErdes.
Bagu sho lërdes.
I used to read.

Subjunctive Adjunct - Jhunte Kateha
This word gives the verb a subjunctive meaning. It denotes a sense of uncertainty or conjecture regarding something. In English, the actual subjunctive mood is rarely used. The true subjunctive in English goes like this: If I were a millionare, I'd buy a mansion. In that sentence, were is in the subjunctive mood. The word sha.i can be more accurately described in terms of the English words might and may. They denote a sense of uncertainty: I might do it, He may not be there. In Hylian, the subjunctive adjunct is used when may or might is used in English. Please note that this adjunct is only used with the present and present perfect tenses.
bagu S@ lErdas.
Bagu sha.i lërdas.
I might (may) read.
bagu S@ lErdant.
Bagu sha.i lërdant.
I might (may) have read.

Conditional Adjunct - Jhunte Tashiza
This word gives the verb a conditional meaning. It is equivalent to the English usage of the word would. It tells what a person would do. I would go if I had the money. Notice that the conditional is often used in conjunction with an if clause. Notice also that the conditional adjunct is used only with the present and present perfect tenses.
bagu SO lErdas.
Bagu sho.i lërdas.
I would read.
bagu SO lErdant.
Bagu sho.i lërdant.
I would have read.

Imperative Adjunct - Jhunte Jushipa
This gives the verb an imperative mood. It is used to give a command that is less forceful than using the actual imperative mood. It is equivalent to saying should or ought to. You should not smoke, You ought to be nice to your brother. This adjunct is used only with the present and present perfect tenses.
t@u Se lErdas ab za lErde.
Ta.iu she lërdas ab za lërde.
You should (ought to) read this book.
t@u Se lErdant ab za lErde.
Ta.iu she lërdant ab za lërde.
You should (ought to) have read this book.

Super-Imperative Adjunct - Jhunte Mojushipa
This gives the verb an imperative meaning, but it much more forceful than the above adjunct. It tells what a person must do, and is one step down from giving a direct command. It gives a feeling of necessity and duty to the sentence, as in You must go home.
t@u Sa lErdas ab za lErde.
Ta.iu sha lërdas ab za lërde.
You must read this book.

Conditional Ability Adjunct - Jhunte 
This is used to say that something could be done, but there is some doubt or uncertainty about it. This is different from the verb panktag which denotes definite ability. I can speak Hylian ~ Bagu jhatas ab hilana. This sentence denotes a sense of certainty and definiteness. I could speak hylian if I learned it ~ Bagu shu jhatas ab hilana at (bagu) lintes ab ru. This sentence describes the ability to speak Hylian, but there is a doubt or condition surrounding it. This adjunct is used with the present and present perfect tense, but the verb in the following if clause is often in the past or past perfect tense.
bagu Su Jatas ab hilane at lintes ab ru.
Bagu shu jhatas ab hilane at lintes ab ru.
I could speak Hylian if I learned it.
bagu Su Jatant ab hilane at lintEnt ab ru.
Bagu shu jhatant ab hilane at lintënt ab ru.
I could have spoken Hylian if I had learned it.

Passive Adjunct - Jhunte Jujowa
Because there are no participles in Hylian, it makes it difficult to create a sentence with a passive meaning. In English, the passive voice turns what would normally be the subject of the verb into an object. For example, the active voice would be I read the book, the passive voice would be The book was read by me. The subject I becomes the object me and the object book becomes the subject. In Hylian, the passive voice doesn't work exactly that way. There is no way to say by me. However, a passive meaning can be given to the sentence by adding the adjunct shiu. Note however that you cannot state who the action was performed by, you can only state what the action was performed upon. It would be something like this: Taz lërde shiu lërdes ~ The book was read. This adjunct is roughly equivalent to the impersonal se in Spanish.
taz lErde siu lErdas.
Taz lërde shiu lërdas.
The book is read.
taz lErde Siu lErdes.
Taz lërde shiu lërdes.
The book was read.
taz lErde Siu lErdos.
Taz lërde shiu lërdos.
The book will be read.
taz lErde Siu lErdant.
Taz lërde shiu lërdant.
The book has been read.
taz lErde Siu lErdEnt.
Taz lërde shiu lërdënt.
The book had been read.
taz lErde Siu lErdont.
Taz lërde shiu lërdont.
The book will have been read.

Reflexive Adjunct - Jhunte Riuka
This adjunct makes the verb reflexive. It reflects the action of the verb back to the subject. It would be like saying "He -verb- himself" or "He -verb- to himself". The relexive adjunct is usually used a lot more commonly in Hylian than the -self pronouns are in English. However, many instances of this adjunct can be understood by context, so they don't always have to be used.


Negating a Verb

One important fact about Hylian verbs is negating a verb. To negate a verb means to make it negative. In English, this is usually done by adding the helping verb do + not. For example: I do not read. In Hylian, a verb is negated by placing the word naz in between the subject and verb (if there ia an adjunct, it is placed before the adjunct).

bagu naz lErdes az lerde.
Bagu naz lërdes az lërde.
I did not read the book.

Eru naz SO lErdas az lerde.
Ëru naz sho.i lërdas az lërde.
He would not read the book.

Please note that the word naz is only used for negating a verb, and is not use for anything else. If you want to say "no" as a response to a question or as an interjection, use the word nani.

nani, bagu naz koemes az koeme.
Nani, bagu naz koemos az koeme.
No, I will not eat the food.

Passive Voice

An unusual aspect of Hylian verbs is that there is not true passive voice. In English, the passive voice is used by combining the verb be with the past participle of a verb. Because Hylian has no participles, it is impossible to write a purely passive sentence. However, to give a sentence a passive meaning, the passive adjunct shiu is used. The denotes that the subject takes on the meaning of an object. Read the adjuncts section for further explanation.


Do not confuse a pro-verb with a proverb. A proverb is a short saying or quote, a pro-verb is a verb that takes the place of another verb or verb phrase in a sentence. This is used frequently in English, but most speakers don't even know that they are doing it. For example: I completed my work just like he did. The word did takes the place of the verb completed. This sentence could have also been written I completed my work just like he completed (his). English-speakers often use a form of the verb do as a pro-verb.

Hylian uses the regular verb dag as its pro-verb, it is conjugated just like any other verb in all tenses.

bagu biankes az trofaSe, lo masan Aktriu des.
Bagu biankes azz trofashe, lo masan äktriu des.
I sought the Triforce, as many others did (as did many others).

Sections Hylian to English